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二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们

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与ActionBarActivity相比,AppCompatActivity有什么增强?

android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity was added into the latest 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 v7 support library as a new feature yesterday.

It is said that ActionBarActivity has been deprecated in favor of the new AppCompatActivity and that AppCompatActivity is base class for activities that use the support library action bar features. So, what are new features of AppCompatActivity over ActionBarActivity ? What enhancements do AppCompatActivity have over ActionBarActivity ? And what are advantages of AppCompatActivity ? Could somebody supply a few samples?

PS: what surprised me most is that AppCompatActivity which is extended from android.support.v4.app.FragmentActivity is the direct parent class of ActionBarActivity ! I mean actually now that ActionBarActivity can do anything that AppCompatActivity can do, why did Android pushed out the latter?

Meanwhile, I saw a blog post that states: "It's not a rename from ActionBarActivity to AppCompatActivity , the internal logic of AppCompat is available via AppCompatDelegate ", so what's the "internal logic" of AppCompat ? What can AppCompatDelegate do? Could somebody post some codes about this?

As Chris wrote, new deprecated version of ActionBarActivity (the one extending AppCompatActivity class) is a safe to use backward compatibility class. Its deprecation is just a hint for you asking to use new AppCompatActivity directly instead. AppCompatActivity is a new, more generic implementation which uses AppCompatDelegate class internally.

If you start a new development, then you should rather use new AppCompatActivity class right away. If you have a chance to update your app, then replace deprecated ActionBarActivity by the new activity as well. Otherwise you can stay with deprecated activity and there will be no difference in behavior at all.

Regarding AppCompatDelegate , 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 it allows you to have new tinted widgets in an activity, which is neither AppCompatActivity nor ActionBarActivity .

For instance, you inherit an activity from an external library, which, in turn, does not inherit from AppCompatActivity but you want this activity to have tinted materials widgets (views). To make it happen you need to create an instance of AppCompatDelegate inside your activity, override methods of that activity like addContentView() , setContentView() etc. (see AppCompatDelegate javadoc for the full list of methods), and inside of those overridden methods forward the calls to the inner AppCompatDelegate instance. AppCompatDelegate will do the rest and your "old-fashion" activity will be "materialized".

二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们

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在pytest中,conftest.py文件有什么用?

I recently discovered pytest . It seems great. However, I feel the documentation could be better.

I'm trying to understand what conftest.二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 py files are meant to be used for.

In my (currently small) test 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 suite I have one conftest.py file at the project root. I use it to define the fixtures that I inject into my tests.

  1. Is this the correct use of conftest.py ? Does it have other uses?
  2. Can I have more than one conftest.py file? When would I want to do that? Examples will be appreciated.

More generally, how would you 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 define the purpose and correct use of conftest.py file(s) in a py.test test suite?

Yes it is. Fixtures are a potential and common use of conftest.py . The fixtures that you will define will be shared among all tests in your test suite. However, defining fixtures in the root conftest.py might be useless and it would slow down testing if 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 such fixtures are not used by all tests.

Fixtures: Define fixtures for static 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 data used by tests. This data can be accessed by all tests in the suite unless specified otherwise. This could be data as well as helpers of modules which will be passed to all tests.

External plugin loading: conftest.二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 py is used to import external plugins or modules. By defining the following global variable, pytest will load the module and make it available for its test. Plugins are generally files defined in your project or other modules 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 which might be needed in your tests. You can also load a set of predefined plugins as explained here.

Hooks: You can specify hooks such as 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 setup and teardown methods and much more to improve your tests. For a set of available hooks, read here. Example:

Test root path: This is a 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 bit of a hidden feature. By defining conftest.py in your root path, you will have pytest recognizing your application modules without specifying PYTHONPATH . In the 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 background, py.test modifies your sys.path by including all submodules which are found from the root path.

Yes you can and it is strongly recommended if your test structure is somewhat complex. conftest.py files have directory 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 scope. Therefore, creating targeted fixtures and helpers is good practice.

root / mod 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 / conftest.py

root / mod / conftest.py

root / mod2 / conftest.py

root / mod2 / test.py

Overriding hooks inherited from the root conftest.py .

root 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 / mod / conftest.py

By running any test inside root/mod , only "I am mod" is printed.

You can read more about conftest.py here.

You can use conftest.py to define your helpers. However, you should follow common practice. Helpers can be used as fixtures at least in pytest . For example in my tests I have a mock redis helper which I inject into my tests this way.

root / tests / stuff / conftest.py

This will 二元交易振荡器 – 如何使用它们 be a test module that you can freely import in your tests. NOTE that you could potentially name redis.py as conftest.py if your module redis contains more tests. However, that practice is discouraged because of ambiguity.

If you want to use conftest.py , you can simply put that helper in your root conftest.py and inject it when needed.

root / tests / conftest.py

However, here you might have problems with the path since the module is not in a child folder of the test. You should be able to overcome this (not tested) by adding an __init__.py to your helper