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比諾莫最小值 Trade 量

図1)国内排出量取引制度のイメージ 出典:環境省 [拡大画像表示]

UN Comtrade upgrade plan 2022

All UN Comtrade-related dissemination sites will be gradually upgraded in 2022 to take advantage of new data items and features. A brief 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 list of the planned new features is shown below. Read more on methodological updates/changes at Methodology Guide For Comtrade+ .

Previous System

Upgrades made with new system

Result for Comtrade Users

Three separate processing systems for annual and monthly Merchandise Trade Statistics and Trade in Services

One integrated processing system for all trade data

Improved consistency and timeliness of dissemination of trade data. Monthly Merchandise Trade Statistics will be disseminated the same way as annual Merchandise Trade Statistics data (e.g., will be converted to other classifications 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 and missing quantities will be estimated)

Data 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 items for Merchandise Trade Statistics included trade by commodity and by partner

In addition, new data items now include (when reported):

  • mode of transport
  • customs procedure codes
  • 2 nd partner

More information on the nature of trade flows and partner country attribution, allowing for better analysis of bilateral trade asymmetries

Single valuation for Merchandise Trade Statistics imports (at CIF) and exports (比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 at FOB)

In addition, FOB valuation for imports (when reported)

Symmetrical valuation of imports 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 and exports and more information on insurance and freight costs, allowing for better analysis of bilateral trade asymmetries

Trade flows for Merchandise Trade 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 Statistics consisted of Total Exports: Re-exports; Total Imports; and Re-Imports

Expanded breakdown of trade flows for Merchandise Trade Statistics (when reported) including Domestic Exports, Export/Import of goods after/for inward processing; Export/Import 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 of goods for/after outward processing; and Export/Import on intra-firm trade

More information on the nature of trade flows, especially re-exports, re-imports, and goods for processing, and intra-firm trade

Merchandise Trade Statistics quantity units standardised to 12 World Customs Organization (WCO) recommended units

In addition, standardization to more quantity units (43+ units), when reported

Additional measures of quantity

Single weight (net weight in kg) for Merchandise Trade Statistics

In addition, gross weight (net weight plus the weight of the shipping or cargo container), when reported

More information on weight and shipping

Limited quantity estimations for Merchandise Trade Statistics (not all commodities estimated)

Estimation of 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 quantity for all commodities ; when applicable. However, some may not be shown for specific commodities

More complete quantity data; especially for aggregated data

Conversion 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 for Merchandise Trade Statistics at 6-digit HS level only

Conversion at any HS level and improved conversion of residuals

More complete converted datasets

Only EBOPS2002 data disseminated for Trade in Services (EBOPS2010 data converted to EBOPS2002)

Trade in Services data also disseminated in EBOPS2010 (when reported in EBOPS2010)

Trade in Services data in both EBOPS2002 and EBOPS2010, when reported

Output Examples

Tab Delimited file:

Find attached file containing description of data items in API, Bulk Final and Bulk Tariffline :

Find attached an Tab Delimited file with sample data (Bulk Final) from our new 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 dissemination system (10MB in GZIP format):

Latest trade trends

All short-term time series are available in 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 the WTO Stats portal.

See monthly data

Further 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 information:

Monthly data

Monthly Trade Trends

(Last Update: July 2022 — Next Update: August 2022)

Summary of the latest figures of merchandise trade and trade in commercial services for selected reporting 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 economies.

monthly trend

See previous editions:

Quarterly data

Merchandise Trade Value

(Last Update: June 2022 — Next Update: September 2022)

Summary of the latest figures of merchandise trade value by region; and 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 the evolution of commodity prices by broad product group.

latest merchandise

See previous editions:

Merchandise Trade Volume

(Last Update: June 2022 — Next Update: September 2022)

Summary of the latest figures of merchandise trade volume by region; and the evolution of commodity prices by broad product 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 group.

latest merchandise

See previous editions:

Trade in Commercial Services

(Last Update: April 2022 — Next Update: July 2022)

Summary of the latest figures 比諾莫最小值 Trade 量 of trade in commercial services by main sector and region.

latest services

See previous editions:

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New monthly merchandise figures have been released on the WTO Data Portal.

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排出量取引制度(キャップ&トレード)とは?

炭素の排出量に価格付けを行う「カーボンプライシング(Carbon Pricing)」の施策には、「排出量取引」と「炭素税」があります。「排出量取引」とは、個々の企業に排出枠(温室効果ガス排出量の限度:キャップ)が設定され、事業者は自らの排出量相当の排出枠を調達する義務を負います。 キャップが未達の場合は罰則があるのが一般的です。事業者が排出枠を調達する方法としては、①オークションによる政府からの購入、②政府からの無償割り当て、③他の事業者からの購入などがあります。事業者は、排出枠の売り買い(トレード)を行うことが可能で、需要と供給により、温室効果ガス(GHG)の価格が形成されます。

図1

図1)国内排出量取引制度のイメージ 出典:環境省 [拡大画像表示]

メリットとデメリット

① 排出枠の設定の困難さ:設定された排出枠に対して、景気変動や他の省エネや再生可能エネルギーの促進策などの効果で、需要が過小になったり過大になる可能性がある。 ② 価格の低迷:低価格で排出枠の調達が可能である場合、短期的には排出枠の購入が削減目標達成のために合理的な対応策となりますが、排出枠購入により企業が保有する原資が奪われ、長期的な低炭素技術の導入やイノベーション(技術革新)に向けた投資を阻害する可能性がある。 ③ 効率性:理論的には効率的に排出削減がなされる前提ですが、すでに本制度が導入された海外事例において効率的な削減がなされているか疑問な点もある。

各国・地域での排出量取引制度(キャップ&トレード)導入状況

(1)EU(欧州連合)

● 制度名:EU-ETS(Emission Trading Systems EU域内排出量取引制度))*加盟28カ国を中心に31カ国が参加 ● 2005年より導入(対象部門:電力、産業、航空等/対象事業所数11500施設) ● 排出枠(2015年)19.0億トン/GHG排出量カバー率:45% ● 最近の価格(/t-CO2):1トンあたり4.78ユーロ(2016/7/1市場価格)=約545円

図2

図2)出典:環境省 [拡大画像表示]